Amphibians have microbiota on their skin. Human AMPs (such as cathelicidins and β-defensins) are produced by keratinocytes and sebocytes to potentiate the skin resistance against pathogens. J. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2008.01606.x, Hsiang, M. S., Shiau, R., Nadle, J., Chan, L., Lee, B., Chambers, H. F., et al. With increasing identification of highly personalized skin microbial communities (Oh et al., 2016), the presence of specific strains in patients emphasizes the importance of the individuality in the disease process and in response to diagnosis and treatment, which may provide an opportunity for precision medicine in the field of skin microbiota. Nat. Corynebacterium 6. Skin microbiome surveys are strongly influenced by experimental design. Because of its constant exposure to and contact with the environment, the skin is … The skin is the human body’s largest organ, colonized by a diverse array of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to the host. 375, 2335–2348. A recent comprehensive review proposes a new concept that AV may be a naturally developing, transient inflammatory interplay of adolescent facial skin with its new microbiota (C. acnes), replacing a state of previous skin homeostasis in childhood (Szegedi et al., 2019). The tad locus: postcards from the widespread colonization island. As seen in healthy individuals, bacteria communities are the most abundant kingdom across time points and body sites for AD patients, whereas fungal communities are the least abundant and mainly Malassezia species, particularly Malassezia restricta and Malassezia globose (Findley et al., 2013; Chng et al., 2016; Oh et al., 2016). In contrast to bacterial communities, fungi of the genus Malassezia are found throughout the body (Oh et al., 2014) but predominated at oily sites such as the face and back (Findley et al., 2013). Using Reconstructed Human Epidermis model (3D model) to investigate the interplay between microbiota and Skin To date, there is emerging evidence of the role of the skin homeostasis supporting proper skin barrier and research into the skin microbiome is constantly growing as … doi: 10.1038/nrmicro.2017.157, Byrd, A. L., Deming, C., Cassidy, S. K. B., Harrison, O. J., Ng, W. I., Conlan, S., et al. Immunol. The normal microbiota of skin tends to inhibit transient-microbe colonization by producing antimicrobial substances and outcompeting other microbes that land on the surface of the skin. The balance of metagenomic elements shapes the skin microbiome in acne and health. Tomic-Canic M, Perez-Perez GI, Blumenberg M. J Dermatol Sci. Prevalence and odds of Staphylococcus aureuscarriage in atopic dermatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Dysbiosis and Staphylococcus aureus colonization drives inflammation in atopic dermatitis. Additionally, a recent study shows that Malassezia globosa can secrete protease that attenuates S. aureus biofilm associated with increased severity and barrier dysfunction of the progression of AD (Li et al., 2018). Figure 3. (2006). It is implicated in several severe skin diseases and plays a major role in wound infections. Figure 4. Rev. Staphylococcus epidermidis agr quorum-sensing system: signal identification, cross talk, and importance in colonization. (2017) found that the CoNS species Staphylococcus caprae isolated from goat milk secreted an AIP (YSTCSYYF) that could block the agr-mediated quorum sensing of all classes of S. aureus (type I–IV) to prohibit their colonization and skin infection. Akin to the therapeutic principle appearing in the gut, manipulating microbiota to modulate dysbiosis has been successful in fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for the control of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) infection (Allegretti et al., 2019) and more recently in leveraging probiotics such as Lactobacillus plantarum to prevent neonatal sepsis (Panigrahi et al., 2017). Sensitization to the yeast Malassezia sympodialis is specific for extrinsic and intrinsic atopic eczema. The available evidence has clearly indicated that the dysbiosis of cutaneous microbiota is substantially associated with multiple skin disorders, and the degree of disorder has a positive correlation with the severity of skin disease. These findings lead to a corollary that disease-associated changes in the skin microbial community can sever itself as a “pathogen” and then conjure up a potential therapeutic strategy that adjusting the skin microbiota reverts the consistency of premorbid state by a microbial transplant on the skin. Primers 4:1. doi: 10.1038/s41572-018-0001-z, Weidinger, S., and Novak, N. (2016). (2016). (2016). Some of these are also residents of your gut microbiome, including Staph, Strep, and Candida species. Acad. Transl. 66, 4422–4432. doi: 10.1111/jdv.14385, Lomholt, H. B., and Kilian, M. (2010). 2020 Jun 4;19(1):26. doi: 10.1186/s12941-020-00367-x. Skin Microbiota. (2017). J. Dermatol. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2014.10.023, Sun, Z., Huang, S., Zhu, P., Yue, F., Zhao, H., Yang, M., et al. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2016.04.053, Simpson, E. L., Bieber, T., Guttman-Yassky, E., Beck, L. A., Blauvelt, A., Cork, M. J., et al. In a case–control study utilizing immunofluorescent labeling to visualize different C. acnes phylotypes in macrocolonies/biofilms in sebaceous follicles of facial skin biopsies from AV patients, AV development was unequivocally linked with the occurrence and localization of C. acnes in follicles, and the formation of C. acnes biofilms attached to the hair shaft and follicular epithelial wall increased morbidity of AV patients (Jahns et al., 2012). However, its expansion in certain contexts is able to counteract promptly the equilibrium state (Parlet et al., 2019), ultimately resulting in several skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis (AD) (Kobayashi et al., 2015) and systemic lupus erythematosus (Conti et al., 2016). Infect. A. Linking diet to acne metabolomics, inflammation, and comedogenesis: an update. now identify an antibiotic called cutimycin produced by a ubiquitous member of the human skin and nasal microbiota, Cutibacterium acnes. Clin. J. Med. In addition, advanced sequencing technology makes it possible to provide an analysis of the skin microbiota composition in healthy or disease states at previously unexplored resolution even including the strain level within a species (Byrd et al., 2018). Lancet 379, 361–372. Med. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Bacterial colonization and succession in a newly opened hospital. B., Uberoi, A., and Grice, E. A. Cell 165, 771–772. Microbiol. (2011). Research techniques made simple: bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing in cutaneous research. In contrast to the skin microbiota of healthy adult, this distortion in patients with more severe AD flares is mainly caused by a single clade of S. aureus and demonstrates a strong correlation with S. aureus relative abundances (Byrd et al., 2017), suggesting that disease states of skin have a specific microbiota composition differing from that of healthy skin. Demodex folliculorum is found in hair follicles in clusters with other mites of the same species. For instance, the abnormal proliferation of Fusobacterium nucleatum in the gut has been linked to colorectal cancer through their adherence and invasion into intestinal epithelial cells, ultimately resulting in increased oncogenic and inflammatory responses (Song et al., 2019), which suggests that certain members of human skin microbiota may curb tumor growth. Rev. The skin is the human body's largest organ, colonized by a diverse milieu of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to their host. Allergy 4, 33–38. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31266-8, Allhorn, M., Arve, S., Bruggemann, H., and Lood, R. (2016). Natl. The skin microbiome is the genetic material of all these microbes. After sequential applications of probiotic solutions containing different combinations from one strain to multiple strains of C. acnes on 18 subjects in the first 3 days, the observation demonstrated that the level of engraftment was positively correlated with the presence of several different strains in the probiotic solution, implicating that different strain combinations have synergistic effects on colonization of recipient skin surface and modulation of the C. acnes population at the strain level is feasible by microbiome transplantation. There are huge numbers of microorganisms — the total microbial cell count in and on our bodies is similar to the number of human … (2015). Infect. (2019) prepared probiotic solutions that were mixtures of different skin microbiome components taken from a healthy donor to modulate the subpopulation of skin microbiota on sebaceous-gland-rich skin regions. 22, 850–859. Actinobacteria; Archaea; Bacteria; Cosmetics; Firmicutes; Fungi; Homeostasis; Perspiration; Proteobacteria; Skin defense and immunity; Skin diseases; Skin microbiota. J. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.11.008, Ghodsi, S. Z., Orawa, H., and Zouboulis, C. C. (2009). Sci. doi: 10.1038/nature18634, Keywords: human skin microbiota, cutaneous disorders, dysbiosis, ecology-based therapy, applications, Citation: Zhou H, Shi L, Ren Y, Tan X, Liu W and Liu Z (2020) Applications of Human Skin Microbiota in the Cutaneous Disorders for Ecology-Based Therapy. Genome Med. Epidemiologic similarities in pediatric community-associated methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus in the san francisco bay area. Although the skin, the largest and most exposed organ in the body (Gallo, 2017), acquires plenty of transient species of microbe by constant dialogue of different people and the external environments (Oh et al., 2016), the composition of the skin microbiota remains surprisingly stable over time (Dorrestein et al., 2016; Lax et al., 2017; Sohn, 2018). Compared to traditional antibiotic therapy of directly eradicating pathogens by brute force, the advantage of this methodology is not only to reduce the formation of drug-resistant bacteria but also to avoid destroying the indigenous microbiota of patients. Epub 2020 May 17. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children with atopic dermatitis from 1999 to 2014: a longitudinal study. Recently, Paharik et al. This collection is a resource that will support skin microbiome research with the potential for discovery of novel small molecules, development of novel therapeutics, and insight into the metabolic activities of the skin microbiota. Eur. 10:570261. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2020.570261. Trends Immunol 36, 788–801. (2019). Clin. 16, 143–155. Sebaceous sites such as the face and torso were dominated by species of the Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) (Scholz and Kilian, 2016) and Staphylococcus genera, whereas moist areas such as the elbow and knee creases were dominated by Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus species (Grice et al., 2009). (2019). Microbiome 7:95. doi: 10.1186/s40168-019-0709-3, Paharik, A. E., Parlet, C. P., Chung, N., Todd, D. A., Rodriguez, E. I., Van Dyke, M. J., et al. Immun. genomes (Wu et al., 2015). Copyright © 2020 Zhou, Shi, Ren, Tan, Liu and Liu. The skin is a dynamic and steady ecology that is populated with millions of microbes, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses, which were collectively termed the skin microbiota (Figure 1; Grice and Segre, 2011). Am. 69, 1957–1960. 2019 Feb 1;95(2):fiy241. doi: 10.1016/j.ddmec.2012.12.003, Schoch, C. L., Seifert, K. A., Huhndorf, S., Robert, V., Spouge, J. L., Levesque, C. A., et al. (2016). Spatially, the skin microbiota may extend to subepidermal compartments . (2008). Guidelines of care for the management of acne vulgaris. doi: 10.1007/s11046-008-9100-9, Shalita, A. R. (2004). Venereol. There is no doubt that the composition of the skin microbiota can shift dramatically during the disease progression (Kong et al., 2012). 139, 747–752.e741. Skin microbiota analysis. Pheromone cross-inhibition between Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Besides, metabolites of R. mucosa on the non-lesional and lesional skin of AD patients demonstrated that differences at strain level might contribute to disease pathology. (2019) applied the CoNS strains collected from human subjects to identify the molecular mechanism for the effects of S. aureus on the epidermal barrier disruption in the development of AD and further determine how dysbiosis on the skin surface permits the bacteria to induce inflammation. (2019). doi: 10.1016/j.it.2015.10.006, Findley, K., Oh, J., Yang, J., Conlan, S., Deming, C., Meyer, J. Invest. Most are found in the superficial layers of the epidermis and the upper parts of hair follicles . Dis. The principal intention was to provide an overview of present and future concepts to use skin models in microbiota analyses. The Probiotics, Human & Skin Microbiome event, brings together leading scientists, physicians, and senior leaders to explore the potential insights into the Probiotics, Human & Skin Microbiome that exhibits significant potential in the near future. It is worth noting that initial attempts failed to consolidate the relationship between AV and the skin microflora. Invest. Mech. 70, 5730–5739. All the genomes of healthy-enriched RT6 strain can encode Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs), which are present in health-associated type II C. acnes phenotypes, confer protective immunity against the invasion of viruses, phages, and plasmids or other exotic DNA, and avoid the acquisition of extra genetic elements that foster virulence and acne pathogenesis (Bolotin et al., 2005; Brouns et al., 2008; Bruggemann et al., 2012; O'Neill and Gallo, 2018). The microbiome in patients with atopic dermatitis. Impact Factor 4.123 | CiteScore 5.4More on impact ›, University of Pennsylvania, United States. 133, 2152–2160. JAMA Dermatol. Nat. Extensive personal human gut microbiota culture collections characterized and manipulated in gnotobiotic mice. At present, reintroduction of living microbiota (a single or cocktail of microbiota) to modulate skin microbiota composition from disease microbiota states to healthy ones may represent a valid target for ecology-based therapy (Stacy and Belkaid, 2019). Nat. Sci. Nat. Biogeography and individuality shape function in the human skin metagenome. J. Med. J. Dermatol. In terms of the overall diversity of the skin microbiota, AD is significantly lower in adults than in children. (c) the distinction of beneficial skin microorganisms from microorganisms or communities with an adverse or sickening effect on their hosts, (d) factors shaping the skin microbiota and its functional role in health and disease, (e) strategies to manipulate the skin microbiota for therapeutic reasons. However, RT4 and RT5 were significantly enriched in up to 40% of AV individuals but rarely found in normal individuals. The human skin is a complex ecosystem that hosts a heterogeneous flora. Composition of the human skin microbiota. doi: 10.1126/science.1171700, Grice, E. A., and Segre, J. In this study, we performed metagenomic profiling on skin swabs collected from the forearm (antecubital fossa) of … 75, 481–493.e488. However, the diversity and relative abundance of the body's microbial communities vary in both the individual and the physiology of the skin sites, which has been categorized into four major skin microenvironment: oily, moist, dry, and foot (Figure 1; Belkaid and Segre, 2014; Byrd et al., 2018). Natl. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.28048-0, Bosi, E., Monk, J. M., Aziz, R. K., Fondi, M., Nizet, V., and Palsson, B. O. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1117018109, Scholz, C. F. P., and Kilian, M. (2016). Staphylococcus epidermidis–the 'accidental' pathogen. (2009). 60, 125–136. of the skin microbiome are only partly under- stood, but results suggest that host genetic and envi- ronmental influences play a major role. Percentage of relative abundance of diverse C. acnes strains in the pilosebaceous units between acne patients and normal individuals. It is possible that heightened understanding of the communication network of skin microbiota in molecular mechanisms will contribute to the amelioration of dysbiosis and may provide more targeted therapies for dysbiosis. The skin microbiota is indispensable for host skin health, as dermatological conditions have been linked to the alteration of the cutaneous microbiota [ … Revealing the secret life of skin - with the microbiome you never walk alone. eCollection 2020. Microbiol. J. Syst. As mentioned earlier, S. aureus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of AD, and the clinical severity of AD is positively correlated with carriage of S. aureus. Our findings demonstrate that human skin … While conventional antimicrobial therapies such as oral and topical antibiotic remain the primary therapeutic method for sufferers with the cutaneous disorders, indiscriminately targeting skin microbiota and eliminating important indigenous commensal microbes remain a major drawback (O'Neill and Gallo, 2018). Mol. Thus, further studies are needed to establish standards for skin microbial healthy states and to conduct a broader and more accurate analysis to determine the differences in multiple levels and functions of skin microbiota between dysbiosis and healthy conditions. Clinical phenotypes and endophenotypes of atopic dermatitis: where are we, and where should we go? doi: 10.1128/IAI.69.3.1957-1960.2001, Paetzold, B., Willis, J. R., Pereira de Lima, J., Knodlseder, N., Bruggemann, H., Quist, S. R., et al. Microflora are frequently (and more correctly) called the skin microbiota or the skin microbiome. (2016). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Current understanding of the cutaneous microbiota is based on sampling the outermost layers of the epidermis, while the microbiota in the remaining skin layers has not yet been fully characterized. As investigators usually focus only on the most critical microbe that causes disease, dysbiosis on the surface of skin is thought to be the loss and increase in a single commensal microbe rather than a mix of different skin microbiota. (2015). doi: 10.1007/s12016-013-8377-8, Li, H., Goh, B. N., Teh, W. K., Jiang, Z., Goh, J. P. Z., Goh, A., et al. Invest. Epub 2020 Nov 7. 175, 687–695. The development of high-throughput microbial genomic sequencing technique, including amplicon sequencing and whole genome sequencing (shotgun metagenomic sequencing), makes it possible to thoroughly characterize skin microbiota constituents (Byrd et al., 2018; Grogan et al., 2019). doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.120608, Nagy, I., Pivarcsi, A., Kis, K., Koreck, A., Bodai, L., McDowell, A., et al. (2016). doi: 10.1038/ng1767, Panigrahi, P., Parida, S., Nanda, N. C., Satpathy, R., Pradhan, L., Chandel, D. S., et al. (2018). Microbiol. The human skin microbiome has recently become a focus for both the dermatological and cosmetic fields. An increased incidence of Propionibacterium acnes biofilms in acne vulgaris: a case-control study. Distinct strains of Propionibacterium acnes induce selective human beta-defensin-2 and interleukin-8 expression in human keratinocytes through toll-like receptors. Australas. HHS (2019). Microbial guardians of skin health. Four most prominent bacterial taxa (Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria) and the Staphylococcaceae (a Firmicute) are found on the surface of healthy skin. doi: 10.1038/nature23480, Parlet, C. P., Brown, M. M., and Horswill, A. R. (2019). doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00388-8, Tomich, M., Planet, P. J., and Figurski, D. H. (2007). Dermatol. There are 1,000 different bacterial species and up to 80 different fungi species. 2020 Feb 26;11:291. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00291. Micrococcus 4. NLM Sci. doi: 10.1093/jpids/pis061, Humar, D., Datta, V., Bast, D. J., Beall, B., De Azavedo, J. C. S., and Nizet, V. (2002). Dermatol. Skin microbiome modulation induced by probiotic solutions. A microbiome-based index for assessing skin health and treatment effects for atopic dermatitis in children. M. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob the dramatic augment in relative abundance of the manuscript into... 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